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Location: Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria 


Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E 


Area: total: 780,580 sq km 
land: 770,760 sq km 
water: 9,820 sq km  


Land boundaries: total: 2,648 km 
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km 


Coastline: 7,200 km


Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior


Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m 
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m


Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower 


Environment: party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands 
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification


Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Turkey 
conventional short form: Turkey 
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti 
local short form: Turkiye 


Government type:  republican parliamentary democracy


Capital:  Ankara


Administrative divisions:  81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak


Independence:  29 October 1923


National holiday:  Republic Day, 29 October (1923)


Legal system:  civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems, member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) 


Executive branch:  chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000) 
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003) 
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a single seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament 
election results: Ahmed Necdet SEZER elected president on the third ballot; percent of National Assembly vote - 60% 
note: president must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot  


Legislative branch:  unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) 
elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held in 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister, on 14 March 2003 
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, Anavatan 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and other; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2005 - AKP 357, CHP 154, ANAVATAN 22, DYP 4, SHP 4, HYP 1, independents 4, vacant 4 


Judicial branch:  Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court


Political parties and leaders:  Anavatan Partisi (once was Motherland Party) or ANAVATAN [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic People's Party or DEHAP [Tuncer BAKIRHAN]; Felicity Party (sometimes translated as Contentment Party) or SP [Necmettin ERBAKAN]; Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI]; People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party) or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] 
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004 


Political pressure groups and leaders:  Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Refik BAYDUR]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU] 


International organization participation:  AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC


Flag description:  red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening 


Population 70,413,958 (July 2006 est.)


Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.5% (male 9,133,226/female 8,800,070) 
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 24,218,277/female 23,456,761) 
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 2,198,073/female 2,607,551) (2006 est.) 


Median age: total: 28.1 years 
male: 27.9 years 
female: 28.3 years (2006 est.) 


Population growth rate: 1.06% (2006 est.) 


Birth rate: 16.62 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) 


Death rate: 5.97 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) 


Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)


Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female 
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.) 


Infant mortality rate:  total: 39.69 deaths/1,000 live births 
male: 43.27 deaths/1,000 live births 
female: 35.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.) 


Life expectancy at birth:  total population: 72.62 years 
male: 70.18 years 
female: 75.18 years (2006 est.) 


Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2006 est.) 


Religions:  Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews) 


Languages: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian 
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the Europe part of Turkey 


Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write 
total population: 86.5% 
male: 94.3% 
female: 78.7% (2003 est.)  


Inflation rate:  7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low


GDP:  GDP (purchasing power parity): 
$572 billion (2005 est.) 
GDP (official exchange rate): 
$332.5 billion (2005 est.) 
GDP - real growth rate: 
5.6% (2005 est.) 
GDP - per capita (PPP): 
$8,200 (2005 est.) 
GDP - composition by sector: 
agriculture: 11.7% 
industry: 29.8% 
services: 58.5% (2005 est.) 


Labor force: 24.7 million 
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2005 est.) 
Labor force - by occupation: 
agriculture: 35.9% 
industry: 22.8% 
services: 41.2% (3rd qtr. 2004) 
Unemployment rate: 
10.2% plus underemployment of 4% (2005 est.) 
Population below poverty line: 
20% (2002) 


Budget:  revenues: $93.58 billion 
expenditures: $115.3 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.) 


Public debt:  68% of GDP (2005 est.)


Agriculture - products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock


Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate: 5.9% (2005 est.) 
Electricity - production: 133.6 billion kWh (2003) 
Electricity - consumption: 140.3 billion kWh (2005) 
Electricity - exports: 600 million kWh (2002) 
Electricity - imports: 1.2 billion kWh (2002) 
Oil - production: 50,000 bbl/day (2005 est.) 
Oil - consumption: 715,100 bbl/day (2005 est.) 
Oil - exports: 46,110 bbl/day (2001) 
Oil - imports: 616,500 bbl/day (2001) 
Oil - proved reserves: 288.4 million bbl (1 January 2002) 
Natural gas - production: 560 million cu m (2003 est.) 
Natural gas - consumption: 22.6 billion cu m (2005 est.) 
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) 
Natural gas - imports: 15.75 billion cu m (2001 est.) 
Natural gas - proved reserves: 8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2002) 


Current account balance: -$23.08 billion (2005 est.)


Exports: $72.49 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.) 
Exports - commodities: 
apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment 
Exports - partners: 
Germany 12.9%, UK 8.1%, Italy 7.6%, US 6.7%, France 5.2%, Spain 4.1% (2005)


Imports:  $101.2 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.) 
Imports - commodities: 
machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment 
Imports - partners: 
Germany 11.7%, Russia 11%, Italy 6.5%, China 5.9%, France 5%, US 4.6%, UK 4% (2005) 


Currency (code):  Turkish lira (YTL); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005


Exchange rates: Turkish liras per US dollar - 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003), 1.5072 (2002), 1.2256 (2001) 
note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish Lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish Lira (YTL) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish Lira


Telephone system: Telephones - main lines in use:  19,125,200 (2004) 
Telephones - mobile cellular:  34,707,500 (2004) 
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)


Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001) 


Television broadcast stations: 635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)


Internet:  Internet country code:  .tr 
Internet hosts:  753,394 (2005) 
Internet users:  5.5 million (2003) 


Airports: 117 (2006) 


Heliports: 18 (2006) 


Pipelines:  gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2004) 


Railways:  8,697 km 


Roadways:  347,553 km


Waterways:  1,200 km (2005) 


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