yourself heard in Turkish !
NOTES ON THE TURKISH ALPHABET AND LANGUAGE
Richard Chambers /
Since 1928, Turkish has been written
in a slightly modified Latin alphabet which is very nearly phonetic.
The Turkish alphabet has 8 vowels (A
E I İ O Ö U Ü ) and 21 consonants. The letters Q,W and X do not exist in Turkish. Most
letters are pronounced pretty much as you would expect, but some are not. Once the
phonetic value of all letters is known, then it is rather easy to pronounce any word one
sees or to spell any word one hears.The following letters require explanation:
Aa = "a" as in
"card" or "dark", never as "a" in"cat" or
"back" ( kan = blood )
Cc = "J" as in "judge" ( can=
life, soul, pronounced like "John" )
Çç = "ch" as in "church"(
çay= tea, pronounced "chay", rhymes with "buy" )
Ee = "e" as in "bed" ( ekmek
Gg = "g" as in "get" ( gelin
( yumuşak ge [soft g] Never appears as the
first letter in a word; essentially silent; sometimes lengthens preceding vowel; sometimes
pronounced like "y" in "yet"
(dag =mountain, pronounced daa , rhymes with the "baa" of "baa baa black
diger =other, pronounced diyer )
lı( undotted "i" ) "u" as in
"radium" or "i" as in "cousin" (ışık =ligth, ırmak =
İi( dotted "i" ) ="i" as in
"sit" ( bir = one, pronounced like "beer" )
Jj = "j" as in "azure" (garaj
= garage, pronounced as in French & English )
Oo = "o" as in "fold"(okul
Öö German "ö" as in
"König" or French "eu" as in "peur"( göl = lake, rhymes
Ss="s" as in "sing", never
pronounced like a "z" as the "s" in "his"(ses = voice)
Şş="sh"as in "ship" (şey =
thing, pronounced "shey" , rhymes with "hay")
Uu "oo" as in "boot" (buz =
ice, pronounced like "booze")
Üü German "ü" as in "für"
or French "u" as in "tu" (gül = rose)
Zz="z" as in "zoo" (beyaz =
Turkish belongs to the Turkic branch of the
Altaic language family.The earliest Turkic inscriptions date from the 7th century C.E. and
Islamic texts written in Turkic appear in the 11th century. Turkish, the language of
modern Turkey, is spoken by about 60 million people. Other important Turkic languages are
Azeri (15 million speakers) and Uzbek (14 million speakers). Turkish formerly used the
same alphabet as Arabic, but has been written in the Latin alphabet since 1928 as
mentioned above; since 1940, Azeri and Uzbek have been written in Cyrillic but efforts are
now under way to replace it with Latin.
As an Altaic language, Turkish has virtually
nothing in common with English or other Indo-European languages except for some loan
words, usually from French or English.
Turkish grammar is complex, but also quite
regular. Its two most characteristic features are : (1) vowel harmony (vowels within a
word follow certain harmonic patterns) and (2) agglutination (addition suffixes to words.)
Through this process, astoundingly long word phrases can be encountered. For example, the
following means, "Maybe you are one of those whom we were not able to Turkify."
Another interesting feature is that there is no
gender in Turkish.The same word , "o", for example, means "he",
"she" and "it".
Turks generally call each other by their given
names.For example, a man whose name is Ahmet Kuran would be called Ahmet bey( bey = Mr.),
and his wife whose name is Ayşe Kuran would be called Ayşe hanım ( hanım =Ms.). Good
friends drop the "bey" and "hanım". But a letter would be addressed
to Bay ve Bayan Ahmet Kuran (Mr. and Mrs...).
Some useful Turkish words
and expressions are :
||Hello[response is the same word]
||reply of the person arriving
||How are you?
||I am well
||Bir şey degil
||Not at all / You're welcome
|Adınız / İsminiz nedir
||What is your name ?
||Adım / İsmim ___.
||My name is _____.
||I'm pleased to meet you.
||Ben de memnun oldum.
||I, too , am pleased to meet you
||Good day. / Have a nice day
||-bye.[said by person leaving]
||Good-bye.[said to person
||After you. / Come in. / Be seated / Help
||Health to your hands.[said to person who
||If God wills
||What did you say? / I beg your pardon?
||Pay attention!/ Watch out!
||Kaça?/ Ne kadar?
||How much is it? / What does it cost?
||This is expensive
||O pahalı degil
||That is not expensive
|Bu çok ucuz
||This is very inexpensive / cheap
||I want [it, this, that]
||I don't want [it, this, that]
Bir(1) , iki(2), üç(3), dört(4), beş(5),
altı(6), yedi(7), sekiz(8), dokuz(9), on(10), onbir(11), oniki(12) , yirmi(20),
yirmibeş(25), otuz(30), otuzüç(33), kırk(40), kırkaltı(46), elli(50) , ellibeş(55),
altmış(60), altmışiki(62), yetmiş(70), yetmişsekiz(78), seksen(80), seksenbir(81),
doksan(90), doksanyedi(97), yüz(100), yüzdokuz(109), yüzellibir(151),
ikiyüzonbeş(215), üçyüzotuz(330), bin(1000), bin dokuz yüz doksan altı(1996),
Other Useful Vocabulary :
||sugar, candy, sweet
||a little sugar
||a lot of sugar
||he , she, it, that
||United States Of America
||Republic of Turkey
||ice cream, sorbet