|In the period of 1980-90
Turkey's export figures showed an average annual increase of 33% and
the value of exports increased from $2.9 billion US to $12.9 billion
Between 1990-93 due to unfavourable
political and economic conditions both at home and abroad a limited
increase in exports was realized reaching only $15.3 billion US .
The growth rate of exports for 1992 and 1993 was 8.3% and 4.3%
In 1994, in order to improve foreign
trade and the balance of payments deficit, new export policies were
put into force, such as: diversified export credit programs and free
market conditions for the foreign exchange rate. As a result,
exports reached $18.1 billion US, with an increase of 18.0% compared
to the previous year.
On the other hand, there are very
important factors which still adversely effect exports . Since the
Gulf crisis with its economic embargo against Iraq, trade relations
between the two countries have been seriously damaged hurting
Turkey's export performance after 1989. While in 1988 Turkish
exports to Iraq were $986 million US, they decreased to $141
thousand US in 1994. Subsequently, Iraq's share of Turkey's exports
has dropped from 8.4% to 0.4 %.
The war in Bosnia also affected
Turkish exporters in the area of transport, especially by high
freight expenses and bureaucratic difficulties regarding trade with
Since 1980 Turkey's export figures
have shown a remarkable change; while agricultural products
dominated up to 1980, after this date, industrial products began to
increase their share in the total value of exports adversely
affecting the share of agricultural products. In 1980 agricultural
products predominated in exports with a 56.7% share. They were
followed by industrial products with a 36.3% and mining and
quarrying products with a 6.8% share.
In 1994, the share of the
agricultural sector was reduced to 13.6% with a value of $2.4
billion US. The share of industrial products in 1994 continued to
grow and reached 84.9 %. This massive change in the industrial
sector is related to the diversification of products.
Among industrial products, the
textile and ready-to-wear industries have taken a 33.7% share of
total exports with $6.1 billion US. Iron and steel products with a
11% share and a value of $2.01 billion US, are the second most
important group in exports, followed by food and tobacco which have
taken a 9.8% share. Electrical machinery and equipment, leather
products, glass and ceramics, machines and mechanical equipments,
road vehicles and parts and chemicals are other important export
products. The total of these top 9 sectors accounts for 72.7% of
Turkey's exports, equivalent to $13.1 billion US.
In the agricultural sector vegetal
products take the largest share (12.0 %) with $2.16 billion US. In
terms of value, fruits and industrial plants are the most important
groups in the mentioned sector. Farming products are the second most
important sub-sector among agricultural products with $244 million
US and a 1.4% share.
Turkey's exports of mining and
quarrying products reached $272 million US and this sector's share
of the total is only 1.5 %. Quarrying products make up the majority
of exports in the mentioned sector.
In ancient times Anatolia was on the
main cross-road between the East and the West known as the
"Silk Road". Today this geographical advantage still holds
true by Turkey's being neighbour to the European, Balkan and Middle
Eastern countries as well as the new Turkish Republics and the New
Independent States. During the last few years, the well-known
traditional trade route has become more significant with the
political and socio-economic changes that have taken place and their
effects on world trade.
Turkey shares the view of developing
multi-sided trade in international economic relations on one hand,
and trying to take maximum advantage of the contributions provided
by regional integration on the other. Under this framework the
"Customs Union" with the European Union put into force on
1.1.1996. Necessary arrangements in trade regulations are being
prepared and adopted by the parliament for the new era. Also,
efforts towards globalization were accelerated by acting as the
founder member of the World Trade Organization Round Agreements
which came into force beginning from 1.1.1995. On the other hand,
Turkey is trying to develop its international relations under the
Organization of Black Sea Economic Cooperation, and the Organization
For Economic Cooperation (ECO). Multilateral relations with the
Islamic Countries are developed on the basis of the COMCEC (Standing
Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation) which has 52
In 1994, of the total exports from
Turkey, the OECD Countries took a 59.3% share with a value of $10.7
billion US. Among OECD members, exports to the EU were $8.2 billion
US which is equal to 45.7% of total exports. Among the top ten
markets for Turkey, six of them are from the OECD group and have a
share of 48.8% with a value of $8.8 billion US . In this group,
Germany, with its 21.7% share, is the major market for Turkey.
Turkey's second largest market is the USA with a 8.4% share.
Islamic Countries took a share of
16.5% in 1994 with a value of $2.9 billion US. Among them the Gulf
States took 7.4% and other Islamic Countries took a 9.1% share.
Among the Islamic Countries Saudi Arabia (3.4 %), Iran (1.4 %), and
Algeria (1.3 %) are among the top ten markets for Turkey.
Russia, with its 8.4% share, is the
third largest market for Turkey. The New Independent States' share
came to 7.8% in 1994. The ratio for the Turkish Republics was only
2.4 %. Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, China and Malaysia are important
markets in the Far East.